India were left one wicket away from victory in the third Test at Trent Bridge on Tuesday after England reached 311 for nine in their second innings at stumps on Tuesday's fourth day.
The tourists claimed the extra half-hour in a bid to wrap up victory with a day to spare but Adil Rashid (30 not out) and James Anderson (eight not out) survived until the close, with England still 210 runs adrift of a mammoth target of 521.
India fast bowler Jasprit Bumrah took three wickets with the new ball on his way to figures of five for 85.
Earlier, Jos Buttler made 106, his maiden Test century, and put on 169 for the fifth wicket with recalled all-rounder Ben Stokes (62) after England had collapsed to 62 for four.
England lead this five-match series 2-0.